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KA - 50 (PT. 1)

ამ ვრცელ სიახლეში მოგითხრობთ შესანიშნავ თამაშ KA - 50-ზე ...... smile

მასალა ძალიან ვრცელია და ამიტომ რამოდენიმე ნაწილად სავარაუდოდ სამად გამოვა....

Ka-50 systems modeling
The Ka-50 flight and systems model has been implemented using the following methodologies.
Helicopter Dynamics Modeling
Rigid body dynamics equations have been used to calculate the helicopter’s flight trajectory. In essence, this means that all external forces and force momentums are used to calculate a body’s position and rotation in 3-D space.

The Ka-50 airframe aerodynamic properties are derived from its sub-element parameters: fuselage, wings, tail, and landing gear. Each of these has its own position and orientation within the airframe local-coordinate system and each has their own aerodynamic characteristics. Each sub-element is calculated by independent lift-drag coefficients diagrams, damage degree influencing the lift properties, and center of gravity (CG) position and inertial characteristics. Aerodynamic forces acting on each sub-element of the airframe are calculated separately in their own coordinate system taking into account local airspeed of the sub-element.

Contacts with the ground and external objects are modeled based on rigid contact points system.

Damage model
The damage model is based on aerodynamic and rigid contact forces where applicable. Damages to airframe components, landing gear, wheels, sensors and devices are all taken into account. Any damage will affect the helicopter’s physical and functional properties and reposition the CG.

Rotor model
The Ka-50 Black Shark’s rotor model is revolutionary among helicopter simulators. It is based on a joint model of each blade with its own complex motion relative to rotor axis and flapping (horizontal) and hunting (vertical) hinges. Each blade is separated into multiple segments, each having its own air velocity vector based on its orientation, twist, and induced velocity at current rotor section. Induced velocity is calculated by solving the equations based on simultaneously application of motion quantity theorem and blade element method. All this produces natural helicopter dynamics such as conical rotor inclination in forward flight (oscillations in hover with fixed stick, cyclic stick input increasing accordingly to the airspeed), power excess after transition from hover to forward flight, ground effect (over inclined surface or close to ground objects), “vortex ring” phenomena, airflow stall from the blades, blades intersection (collision). In the case of individual blade damage, corresponding dynamics are naturally modeled as part of overall rotor model.

POWERPLANT

The Ka-50 powerplant consists of a gearbox with free-wheel clutches, two TV3-117VMA turbo-shaft engines with electronic engine governors, an auxiliary power unit and turbo-gear.

For the first time in flight simulation history, the engine model is based on detailed physics model of turbo-shaft engine as a system of separate components of the engine gas-dynamics system: engine inlet, compressor, combustion chamber, high-pressure turbine and power-turbine with engine exhaust.

The model corresponds to the real engine in all modes of operation in terms of output power, acceleration, compressor RPM, exhaust gas temperature (EGT) and fuel consumption, in relation to the ambient air temperature and pressure. Operation of bleed air valves is modeled for the compressor anti-stall system, engine’s deicing system and the dust cyclone. By reducing the airflow through the engine, these devices increase the EGT and lower the take-off power of the engine. Engine components parameters degradation is implemented in the model within the service life or in case of exceeded operation limitations of take-off and emergency power modes or power loss with EGT over-limit.

Compressor choking caused by intake icing is modeled so that it leads to power loss, EGT increase, compressor stall and engine flame-out. Flame-out is modeled using air-fuel ratio calculation in the combustion chamber. The engine control system, as in real life, consists of turbo-compressor (gas-generator- GG) RPM governor, power-turbine RPM governor, automatic engine start-up and acceleration devices, electronic engine governor (EEG) that limits the max EGT and monitors/limits the power-turbine RPM. Except for direct engine control, the control system incorporates start-up cycle of the APU, main engines and turbo-gear, engine and engine controls test equipment like engine false start, engine vent (crank), EEG test, rotor (power-turbine) RPM governor readjustment and many more.
The hydraulic system
The hydraulic system incorporates all of the servo boosters, accumulators, tanks, and boost pumps. As in the real system, it is subdivided into Main and Common systems, each having its own lines, pumps and consumers. In the servo booster model, the displacement of the output power rod as a function of the fluid pressure (and selector valve position) is taken into account along with external factors such as hinge moments, support reactions etc. The system pressure is determined by the charge in the accumulators as a function of the pumps delivery and loads consumption and also damage leaks.
Fuel system
Helicopter’s fuel system includes fuel tanks, fuel lines, boost pumps and valves. Fuel usage leads to change in the center of mass position within allowed operating limits. Fuel system is fully controlled from the cockpit by the pilot.

The electrical system includes:
Main alternating current (AC) distribution system
Emergency alternating current (AC) distribution system
Direct current (DC) distribution system
External electrical power sources for alternating and direct current supply
The Ka-50 electrical power generation system provides AC and DC power to the primary and emergency buses and distribution assemblies. This power supply is used to run avionics systems, internal and external lighting, hydraulic, fuel systems control and monitoring, engines, and auxiliary power unit start up systems. When on the ground, an external power cart can be used as an alternate power source. In addition to onboard power generation capability, the Ka-50 also includes batteries that electrical power can be drawn from.

The Alternating Current System

The primary electrical system is fed by alternating current (AC) 115/200 V, 400 Hz generators. This supply is further divided into left and right systems on independent channels to provide system redundancy. Generator operation is dependent upon the left and right engines being active as each engine contains a gearbox that runs a generator. The left channel systems can be powered by the right generator and the right channel systems are powered by the left generator. In the event of both generators becoming inoperative, a back-up, static DC to AC inverter can take over power to the most important systems and direct current will trigger the in-flight warning system.

The Direct Current System

Systems requiring direct current (DC) power are supplied at 27V by use of AC to DC transformer-rectifiers. Transformer-rectifiers are active while the generators are in operation. If one of the transformer-rectifiers is switched off though, systems will be switched to the operating transformer-rectifier. If both transformer-rectifiers and/or generators are off-line, the most important avionics systems will be switched to emergency DC power.

Damage to the electrical generation system is also manifested in the visual damage model of the Ka-50. An event-oriented approach is implemented such that a loss in electrical power to systems will have a cascade effect. This specifically means that the loss of one electrical system will have repercussions affecting linked elements of the electrical system.

Ka-50 Avionics Systems Overview
Although a highly detailed flight manual will be provided with DCS: Black Shark, the following provides you with a small sampling of the avionics systems modeled in our simulation of the Ka-50. Piloting, navigation, targeting and defensive systems and included in this overview.

Ka-50 Avionics Systems Overview
Although a highly detailed flight manual will be provided with DCS: Black Shark, the following provides you with a small sampling of the avionics systems modeled in our simulation of the Ka-50. Piloting, navigation, targeting and defensive systems and included in this overview.
Cockpit Instruments
The Ka-50 cockpit instruments are generally traditional electro-mechanical gauges that are mounted on the front dash and side / back panels. These instruments are divided into three general groups: flight control, engine control/monitoring and systems control. Other cockpit interfaces include traditional switches, dials and multiple-position switches. Additionally, the Ka-50 has multiple banks of warnings lights and cockpit illumination controls.

Advanced Moving Map System AMMS (ABRIS)
The ABRIS panel is a multi-function display that allows the pilot to perform the following tasks:
Programming, editing and saving of waypoints, runways, radio beacons, target locations and the ability to study terrain along the flight route, etc.;
Ability to alter flight plan during mission;
Real-time determination of helicopter position coordinates by using of built in navigational satellite system sensor (GPS/GLONASS); display of the helicopter position on the electronic moving map display; ability to cycle map scale; check cross-track error and the other necessary navigation information;
Display of aeronautical information and flight plan required for the navigation during all stages of a mission;
Reception of information from the autonomous pressure altitude sensors and necessary processing of pressure altitude for the needs of the built-in satellite navigation system sensor;
Reception and processing of information from the other avionics systems such as the “Rubicon” targeting-navigation system and data-link equipment.
Indicating the position of wingmen using data-link as well as targeting line of sight vector from “Shkval” targeting system.
Annotate moving map with text and symbols.

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