Development of the 2S1 Gvosdika (carnation) 122-mm self-propelled howitzer began in 1967. First prototypes were built in 1969 and in entered service with the Soviet Army in 1971. Production of the 2S1 Gvosdika commenced in 1972 and it was deployed in large numbers. It is currently in service with a number of countries.
The 2S1 Gvosdika is fitted with D-32 rifled 122-mm howitzer, which is a modified variant of the D-30 towed howitzer. Howitzer is fitted with a load assisting system. Maximum rate of fire is 4 - 5 rounds per minute. The Gvosdika is compatible with all 122-mm munitions developed for the D-30 howitzer. These include fragmentation, HE-FRAG, HEAT, cluster, smoke and illumination projectiles. A total of 40 rounds are carried, usually 35 HE-FRAG and 5 HEAT. Maximum range of fire with HE-FRAG projectile is 15.2 km.
The 2S1 Gvosdika SPH has a crew of four, including commander, gunner, loader and driver.
Hull and turret are welded from steel armor. It provides protection for the crew against small arms fire and artillery shell splinters. It is fitted with NBC protection system.
The 2S1 Gvosdika is based on the modified MT-LB multi-purpose armored vehicle chassis. Vehicle is powered by the JaMZ-238V diesel engine, developing 240 horsepower. Vehicle is amphibious if the ammunition load is reduced to 30 rounds. On water vehicle is propelled by it's tracks. Maximum amphibious speed is 4.5 km/h. The 2S1 Gvosdika SPH can be airlifted by An-12, IL-76 or C-130 transport aircraft.